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Father in Hebrew
 אב (ab) or "father" is most often used in the Old Testament of a paternal father. Thought to be an "onomatopoetic" word for infants addressing their father ('abba' in Aramaic).

"Father" is also used of relationships which mirror the father-child relationship, such as the protector of the poor, "a father to the poor" (Job 29.16); those in secular government authority, "a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem" (Isa.22:21); priests, prophets and kings (2 Kgs 6:21; Jud 18:19; 1 Sam. 24:11).


Keeping this usage in mind, we see a fuller understanding of the commandment to "honor father and mother" as extending to those in authority brought to fuller exposition in the New Testament (Cf. Rom.13:2; 1 Pe 2:18; Rom. 13:1; Heb.13:17)

God as Father of Israel
Israel is God's "firstborn son" (Ex.4:22; Jer.31.9-10) and as such, the LORD is the father of Israel, the true Church. 

While other nations have appealed and named their god(s) as the "father" of all people and nations,  only those in a covenential relationship with the Divine Father and LORD of Israel could claim such a relationship with the heavenly father (Cf. Ps.103:13).

King David and the Royal Line
King David, through whom would come the promised Messiah, made appeal to the LORD as "father" in the voice of Christ: "He shall cry to Me, 'You are my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation.'  Also I will make him My firstborn, The highest of the kings of the earth." (Ps.89.26-27)

The unique relationship of Father - Son the Lord shares with Jesus Christ is now shared with the Christian.

Our Father who art in Heaven...
While it has been said the "Lord's Prayer" could be prayed by any religious person, only a Christian may properly address God as "Father." As we have seen, only those in a covenential relationship with the LORD may call him "father." 

Through the merits of Christ, each baptized believer can confidently call the LORD "father."  Paul writes in Romans 8:15,  "For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption by whom we cry out, "Abba, Father."" and again in  Galatians 4:6,  "And because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying out, "Abba, Father!"" 

Hebrew Mnemonic for "Father" 
To recall "ab" is " father" find a "sound-alike" word for "ab." For myself, it sounds like "ave," as in "Ave Maria."  Associate your "sound-alike" to the definition of  "father."  I vividly picture my father  singing "Ave Maria"

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